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These trials did not support the use of levetiracetam or zonisamide as first line treatments in focal epilepsy or levetiracetam for newly diagnosed generalised epilepsy at 12 months.

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Anthony G Marson 1,*, Girvan Burnside 2, Richard Appleton 3, Dave Smith 4, John Paul Leach 5, Graeme Sills 1, Catrin Tudur-Smith 2, Catrin O Plumpton 6, Dyfrig A Hughes 6, Paula R Williamson 2, Gus Baker 1, Silviya Balabanova 7, Claire Taylor 7, Richard Brown 8, Dan Hindley 9, Stephen Howell 10, Melissa Maguire 11, Rajiv Mohanraj 12, Philip EM Smith 13

1 Department of Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
2 Department of Health Data Science, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
3 The Roald Dahl EEG Unit, Alder Hey Children’s Health Park, Liverpool, UK
4 The Walton Centre NHS Foundation Trust, Liverpool, UK
5 School of Medicine, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK
6 Centre for Health Economics and Medicines Evaluation, Bangor University, Bangor, UK
7 Liverpool Clinical Trials Centre, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
8 Addenbrooke’s Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge, UK
9 Bolton NHS Foundation Trust, Royal Bolton Hospital, Bolton, UK
10 Department of Neurology, Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield, UK
11 School of Medicine, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK
12 Salford Royal NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, UK
13 The Alan Richens Epilepsy Unit, University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff, UK
* Corresponding author Email:

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