Journals Library


The NIHR Journals Library has tried to ensure that the contents of this website are accurate, but it will not be liable (to the fullest extent of the law) for any loss, damage or inconvenience arising as a consequence of any use of, or inability to use, any information on this site. Visitors who use this website and rely on any information do so at their own risk. The NIHR Journals Library does not represent or warrant that the information accessible via the website is accurate, complete or up to date. Price and availability information is subject to change without notice.

All NIHR Journals Library content is provided for information and education and not as a substitute for the advice of a health care professional. The NIHR Journals Library assumes no responsibility or liability arising from any error or omission or from the use of any information contained herein.

The NIHR Journals Library takes no responsibility for the contents of linked websites and links should not be taken as endorsement of any kind. The NIHR Journals Library has no control over the availability of the linked pages.


There may be websites linked to and from this site that are operated or created by or for organisations outside of the NIHR Journals Library. Those organisations are solely responsible for the operation of, and information (including the right to display such information) found on, their respective websites.

Linking to or from this site does not imply on the part of the NIHR Journals Library any endorsement or guarantee of any of the organisations or information (including the right to display such information) found on their respective websites.

Freedom of information

Information held by us is subject to the provision of the Freedom of Information Act 2000 and subordinate legislation. This Act provides individuals with a right of access to recorded information, of any age, which the NIHR Journals Library holds, subject to certain exemptions.

Data protection

Any information provided by persons accessing the NIHR Journals Library shall be processed in accordance with the Data Protection Act 1998 and subordinate legislation. The data controller is the Department of Health, unless otherwise stated.


Some sections of the NIHR Journals Library website may require you to provide personal information in order for us to provide a particular service e.g. email alerting, ordering print copies, responding to queries. By providing this information you are consenting to us processing your information for the purposes for which it was provided and for any other purposes to which you may have agreed.

Information collected from you will not be passed to any third party without your consent, except where we are under a statutory obligation or entitled to do so by law.


NIHR Journals Library publications

The text and layout of all journals published under the NIHR Journals Library are published under the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) licence. 
Journals in the NIHR Journals Library are published on an Open Access basis. This means that visitors to the NIHR Journals Library website are granted permission to access copyright material and to download copyright material onto electronic, magnetic, optical or similar storage media provided that such activities adhere to the CC BY licence and that the provenance of the copyright material is acknowledged at all times.
Under this license, authors agree that anyone can reuse part or all of your article under the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) terms ( This licence permits unrestricted use, distribution, reproduction and adaption in any medium and for any purpose provided that it is properly attributed. The proper attribution to NIHR Journals Library journals must include the title, original author(s), the publication source – NIHR Journals Library, and the DOI of the publication. 
Please contact with any queries.

NIHR Journals Library website

All NIHR Journals Library website text, images and logos (with the exception of Journals as outlined above) are Copyright 2021 NETSCC (NIHR Evaluation, Trials and Studies Coordinating Centre).

Visitors to this website must not copy, distribute or publish any of the copyright material taken from this website. Any other use of the material requires the formal permission of the NETSCC which can be contacted by email at

If you would like to use any graphic or logo from this website, you must request permission, unless it is stated otherwise. Please contact

We endeavour to ensure that the information on this website is correct but do not accept any liability for error or omission.