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The availability of seclusion and psychiatric intensive care influences how disturbed behaviour is managed, and there were clear predictors of their use when available; however, it remains unclear whether they reduce or worsen violence

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Len Bowers, Alexis E Cullen, Evanthia Achilla, John Baker, Mizanur Khondoker, Leonardo Koeser, Lois Moylan, Sophie Pettit, Alan Quirk, Faisil Sethi, Duncan Stewart, Paul McCrone & Alex D Tulloch.

Len Bowers 1, Alexis E Cullen 1, Evanthia Achilla 1, John Baker 2, Mizanur Khondoker 1, Leonardo Koeser 1, Lois Moylan 3, Sophie Pettit 1, Alan Quirk 4, Faisil Sethi 5, Duncan Stewart 1, Paul McCrone 1, Alex D Tulloch 1,5,*

1 Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King’s College London, London, UK
2 School of Healthcare, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK
3 Department of Nursing, Molloy College, Rockville, NY, USA
4 Royal College of Psychiatrists, London, UK
5 South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK
* Corresponding author Email:

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